Employees’ welfare and provision of the conducive working environment is essential in maintaining high productivity levels and consistency in the performance. Fair treatment of workers must be a priority for any employee as it is also a constitutional right for any employee under the labor laws. The present working environment is characterized by some unfair practices such as discrimination, unfair allocation of resources and lack of diversification among the employees. Employee protection is essential in any organization, and the anti-discrimination laws must consist in the organization (Kite & Whitley, 2016). The paper, therefore, focuses on the benefits and costs of implementing the anti-discrimination laws, the hiring and recruitment process as well as provides recommendations for the future policies regarding mitigating discrimination.

Federal forms under the federal anti-discrimination laws

The federal government to mitigate the issues of workplace discrimination has implemented several laws. Under the federal laws, some of the anti-discrimination laws common in the United States of America are listed as follows. Firstly, the Title VII of the Civic Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination of applicants and employees based on race, religion, gender and national origin. Another Act under this bream is the Age discrimination in Employment Act. Thirdly, the federal laws protect people with disability from manipulation under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Equal Pay Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1886 are some of the other federal laws prohibiting employee discrimination (Wishnie, 2007).

Benefits of voluntary anti-discrimination federal laws

The forms of federal laws listed above each have benefits differing from the nature of the Act and the persons of interests. In the Title VII of the Civil Rights, for instance, there are many benefits of voluntarily prohibiting the rule such as; diversification of the team of employees thus increased productivity and provision of opportunities for the rightfully skilled employees in the employment platform. The Equal Pay Act pose several benefits including controlled manipulation of employees in terms of the wages and salaries they receive. The different working classes are rewarded accordingly thus a motivation for those at the top of the hierarchy. The Immigration Reform and Control Act protects immigrants from being discriminated. The outcome is freedom of working in a foreign country with the consent of the Federal laws alongside the full exploitation of talents among people across the globe. The promotion of cultural ties and strong social ties will be achieved in the long run. Persons with special needs are motivated to participate in labor force thus the accruing benefit is reduced dependency levels among those with special needs. The Age Discrimination Act pulls the workforce from all age groups promoting diversity which is necessary for the growth of an organization (Luchenister, 2015).

Costs of voluntarily prohibiting federal laws on anti-discrimination

Once an organization has opted to ignore the federal laws set on the treatment of workers in the workplace, direct and indirect costs are incurred in the process. The Age discrimination Act, for instance, will cost the organization in future for training those who did not a get a chance to work in the organization due to age differences. Legal costs incurred if an employee report on the unfair treatment in an organization is possible with penalties and fines as the outcomes. Preferential treatment of the workers will cost an organization the opportunities for innovation. Backwardness may be experienced especially if the new and fresh team of employees have more technical and soft skills than the existing employees. Immigrants and foreign relations with foreign countries may cost an organization not only skilled labor but also the markets in the short run and long run (Luchenister, 2015).

Forms of discrimination policies not restricted by the federal laws

Apart from the policies set up by the federal government on protecting the welfare of employees, some policies are outside the umbrella, and they altogether affect the employees’ working environment. There are special cases where a form of discrimination is not enforceable by law. Management must be able to recognize the benefits and costs of these anti-discrimination laws in the workplace (Wishnie, 2007).

Benefits and costs of voluntarily prohibiting nonfederal laws

Religious groups at some point may not be defended in the federal policies formed. The benefits resulting from prohibiting nonfederal laws on employment include freedom and independence of the recruitment and selection process. The training of employees which is not a requirement by law can save costs from setting up training programs. The Housing Act not included in the main employment federal policies if prohibited by the organization does less harm to the organization. Long term drivers and decisions can be comfortably be achieved. Therefore, the saving of costs thus become a priority for the business.

Costs of prohibiting the anti-discrimination laws, not within the federal jurisdiction are not exempted. The manipulation of workers may cost the employers loss of good and potential workforce. The productivity of employees if not treated according to the ethical standards declines tremendously. The business cost and transition cost in the process of changing and implementing a new policy are likely to be higher than if the policies are implemented and embraced at an earlier period. The disruption of the organization structure is also a cost in terms of wastage of human resources.

Benefits and costs of voluntarily adopting hiring and promotion practices designed to diversify the workforce

Business diversification entails entering of new ventures in an organization with new rules and strategies put into consideration. The voluntary act of adopting hiring and promotion practices consists of several indicators as to whether the policies will result in benefits or costs. The benefits in business include; cost reduction in training, accessibility to new markets, access to talent, innovation and creativity, incorporation of cultural values, wide workforce demographics and lastly, good reputation with the government and other stakeholders.

The costs of a diversified hiring and promotion practice are quite a few as compared to the benefits. Costs of legal compliance such as communication of the new policies are likely to add the expenses in an organization. Secondly, the cash costs of diversity such as the payment of specialist staff will be quite high. Opportunity costs of diversity and business risks of diversity will lead to loss of benefits in the implementation stage (Wishnie, 2007).

The ethical considerations of not voluntarily prohibiting forms of discrimination laws

The federal laws of interest in this section are the Civil Rights laws, the age discrimination act, the equal pay act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The manipulation and discrimination of employees based on race, for instance, is a breach of the human rights. Distress and unfair treatment of employees are unethical as it leads to psychological disorders thus affecting the performance (Kite & Whitley, 2016). Employment of specific groups additionally raises legal matters that eventually leads to loss of skilled labor. Conflicts of interests of employees are also compromised in three main forms; bribes, hiding of privileged information and influence thus loss of confidence in the management. Use of corporate resources if discriminatory dissatisfies the employee (Wishnie, 2007).


For a business interested in conducting a non-discriminatory working environment is encouraged to ensure that all the employee protections are included in their organizational structure. Both federal laws and those not enforceable by the law are essential and will result into more benefits than costs. Utilization of resources and ensuring that the value of fair treatment of employees can be achieved through diversification at all levels including the hiring and promotion stages. Establishment of programs to develop the formal and informal networks to ensure diversity and fairness prevail in an organizational set up remains essential for an organization (Kite & Whitley, 2016). Not only will the organization evade from the legal costs incurred if there is unfairness in the organization but also long-term decisions on the working environment are going to enhance productivity and peak performance. Strategies must as well be formulated to overcome both the internal and external obstacles to diversification and fair treatment of employees.


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