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Using Information Ethically Responsible Computing

A term used to describe a company using the technologies and practices resulting from Web 2.0 architectures, applications, and services. Enterprise 2.0 typically means a flat organization with unimpeded information flows between all levels and individuals in the organization. Companies adopting these practices seek to be agile, flexible, user driven, on-demand, and transparent. Enterprise Architecture: The term used for a “blueprint” for the corporation that includes the business strategy, the IT architecture, the business processes, and the organization structure and how all these components relate to each other. Often this term is IT-centric, specifying the IT architecture and all the interrelationships with the structure and processes. Enterprise System: A set of information systems tools that many organizations use to enable this information flow within and between processes across the organization. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning Software): A large, highly complex software program that integrates many business functions under a single application. ERP software can include modules for inventory management, supply chain management, accounting, customer support, order tracking, human resource management, and so forth. ERP software is typically integrated with a database. Espoused Values: Explicitly stated, preferred organization values. Explicit Knowledge: Objective, theoretical, and codified for transmission in a formal, systematic method using grammar, syntax, and the printed word. (See Tacit Knowledge.) Extranet: A network based on the Internet standard that connects a business with individuals, customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders outside the organization’s boundaries. An extranet typically is similar to the Internet; however, it has limited access to those specifically authorized to be part of it. Farshoring: Form of offshoring that involves sourcing service work to a foreign lower-wage country that is relatively far away in distance or time zone (or both). Federalism: Organization structuring approach that distributes power, hardware, software, data, and personnel between a central IS group and IS in business units. File Transfer: Means of transferring a copy of a file from one computer to another over the Internet.

Firewall: A security measure that blocks out undesirable requests for entrance into a Web site and keeps those on the “inside” from reaching outside. Flat Organization Structure (also called horizontal organization structure): Organization structure with less well-defined chain of command and with ill-defined, fluid jobs. Focus Strategy: A business strategy where the organization limits its scope to a narrower segment of the market and tailors its offerings to that group of customers. This strategy has two variants: cost focus, in which the organization seeks a cost advantage within its segment, and differentiation focus, in which it seeks to distinguish its products or services within the segment. This strategy allows the organization to achieve a local competitive advantage, even if it does not achieve competitive advantage in the marketplace overall. (See Cost Strategy, Differentiation Strategy.) Folksonomy: Collaboratively creating and managing a structure for any type of collection, such as a collection of ideas, data, or documents. The term is the merger of “folk” and “taxonomy,” meaning that it is a user-generated taxonomy. Full Outsourcing: Situation in which an enterprise outsources all its IS functions from desktop services to software development. Functional View: The view of an organization based on the functional departments, typically including manufacturing, engineering, logistics, sales, marketing, finance, accounting, and human resources. (See Process View.) Governance (in the context of business enterprises): Making decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. Green Computing: An upcoming technology strategy in which companies become more socially responsible by using computing resources efficiently. Groupware: Software that enables a group to work together on a project, whether in the same room, or from remote locations, by allowing them simultaneous access to the same files. Calendars, written documents, e-mail messages, discussion tools, and databases can be shared. GUI (Graphical User Interface): The term used to refer to the use of icons, windows, colors, and text as the means of representing information and links on the screen of a computer. GUIs give the user the ability to control actions by clicking on objects rather than by typing commands to the operating system.

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