Short Written Assignment: Musical Form

Short Written Assignment: Musical Form

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5.1 objeCTives 1. Demonstrate knowledge of historical and cultural contexts of the
classical period 2. Recognize musical performing forces (voices, instruments, and
ensembles), styles, composers, and genres of the classical period 3. Aurally identify selected music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven and
explain how it interacts with forms of the day
5.2 Key Terms and individuals • American War for
Independence • cadenza • chamber music • coda • concerto • cotton gin • da capo • first-movement concerto
form/double-exposition form • French Revolution • hemiola • Industrial Revolution • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Joseph Haydn
• Ludwig van Beethoven • minuet and trio form • Napoléon Bonaparte • opera buffa • pizzicato • rondo • scherzo • sonata • sonata form (exposition,
development, recapitulation) • steam engine • string quartet • Symphony • ternary form • The Enlightenment
5music of the Classical PeriodJeff Kluball and Elizabeth Kramer
Understanding MUsic MUsic of the classical Period Musical Form
5.3 inTroduCTion and hisToriCal ConTeXT Of all the musical periods, the Classical period is the shortest, spanning less
than a century. Its music is dominated by three composers whose works are still some of the best known of all Western art music: Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), and Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827). Although born in different European regions, all three spent a substantial amount of time in Vienna, Austria, which might be considered the European musical cap- ital of the time.
Music scholars have referred to this time as the Classical period in music for several reasons. For one, the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven has served as the model for most composers after their time and is still played today; in this way, the music is “classic” in that it has provided an exemplar and has stood the test of time. As we will also see, this music has often been perceived as emulating the balance and portion of ancient Greek and Roman art, the time period to which the word “classical” is affixed within literature and art history, as well as the wider field of history. Musical Form
Our use of the Classical period to refer to music of roughly 1750 to 1820, how-ever, should not be confused with our broader use of the term “classical music” to refer to art music (music that does not otherwise fall within the spheres of popular music or folk music).
Beginning towards the end of the 16th century, citizens in Europe became skep- tical of traditional politics, governance, wealth distribution, and the aristocracy. Philosophers and theorists across Europe began to questioning these norms and issues and began suggesting instead that humanity could benefit from change. Publications and scientific discoveries of these thinkers proving and understand- ing many of nature’s laws spurred the paradigm shift of logic referred to as the Age of Reason, or the Enlightenment.
The seeds for the Enlightenment can be found in England in approximately the 1680s. In that decade, Newton published Principia Mathematica and John Locke published his “Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” These two works pro- vided the philosophical, mathematical, and scientific foundation for the Enlight- enment’s great developments. Locke stressed that knowledge is gained through accumulated life experience rather than by acquired outside truth. Newton’s math- ematics and optical theory showed that humans can observe, study, define, and test the world around them and can also mathematically measure and prove nat- ural occurrences.
Besides Locke and Newton, Enlightenment thinkers included Voltaire, Mon- tesquieu, Jean-Jacque Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin, and Immanuel Kant. Their works especially stressed improving humanity’s condition through the use of rea-

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Author Since: November 30, 2020