Quality Improvement Programs
Quality improvement program is a series of systematic activities organized and implemented by an organization with an objective of monitoring, evaluating and advancing the quality of a business venture such as the supply chain management. In modern business world, project management, healthcare and production industries rely on some theories formulated by scholars to align their business objectives. Some scholars whose theories and principles are common in elaborating quality improvement programs include; Joseph Juran with the Trilogy program, Edward Deming on Quality program, and Philip Crosby. The paper will contract and compare the quality improvement programs of two scholars; Deming’s quality program and Juran’s Trilogy program.
Deming’s quality program
Edward Deming was a management consultant who in his program advocated embracement of certain management principles by the organization to improve product quality and simultaneously reduce costs. According to the scholar, reduction of costs in management involves minimizing waste production, staff attrition reduction and litigation (Gupta, 2017). The strategies in cost reduction must ensure there is increasing customer loyalty for the sake of future business activities. Deming’s program is summarized into two main summaries: Organizations should focus mainly on quality expressed as results of work efforts over the total costs incurred. Focusing primarily on the costs, costs rise and quality gradually drops which is not an objective of any firm (Fonseca, 2015).
The Deming cycle
The Deming cycle, also known as Shewhart Cycle was developed by Deming to link manufacturers of products with the consumers’ needs. The departmental resources are the constraint to quality improvement, and therefore, the cycle revolves around four stages; plan, action, check and act adjustments. Planning entails designing consumer research methodology that reveals the business components. Action or doing stage involves the implementation of a plan that measures the performance of the product quality. Checking the measurement follows and a report of findings must be submitted to the decision making personnel. Adjustments are after that done by the gaps identified in earlier stages (Fonseca, 2015).
Juran’s Trilogy program
Joseph Juran’s Trilogy program on quality improvement is the other program used in the paper that advocates on several measurements to quality and quality management. The premise of the program is that total quality management starts at the highest position in management all the way down the hierarchy. The trilogy quality program consists of a cross-functional management with three legislative processes. Quality planning is the first process that creates awareness of the necessity to improve quality and how to reach certain goals. The second stage is a quality control that design methods that can test the quality of products. Quality improvement is the last process in the program and is all about a constant drive to quality perfection (Fonseca, 2015).
The two quality programs have several similarities based on either the premises, the implementation process or the key requirements for successful implementation. Firstly, both Deming and Juran emphasize that quality requires a strong upper management commitment. Quality of end products is what the two scholars focus on, and with high-quality products, money is saved. The responsibility of quality is not on workers but on the managers who must ensure there are control measures of quality (Fonseca, 2015). Quality must be perpetual, and new implementations must be done to ensure necessary adjustments are done. The shift in the workplace culture is essential to safeguard quality. The two programs advise that there must be a minimal variance for quality to be gained. The initial steps for implementation in both cases are planning and having a team that analyzes the nature of variation if any present in the product and also formulate a strategic plan that will measure quality from time to time (Dale, 2015).
Contrasts in the two quality programs
Key elements of an implementation of quality improvement between the two programs are an area of divergence of the implementation stage. Whereas Deming quality program aims at reducing uncertainty and variability in product design, variation is considered the main cause of poor quality. Profound knowledge of the nature of the product is the baseline for implementation. There are four stages to mitigate the high degree of variation of products. They include; appreciation for a quality system, extensive knowledge on the different theories of variation, the theory of knowledge and psychology (Dale, 2015).
Quantitative measures and standards
One major contrast between Deming’s and Juran’s theories is how each regards quantitative measures and standards. Deming relies on statistical process control (SPC) as the problem-solving technique thus separates systematic causes from special causes and is further unwilling to set quantitative objectives for the workforce. Deming’s quality program lacks a defined initial step. Junar measures and quantify everything from conformance to the risk of injury due to poor quality (Dale, 2015).
Role of upper management and workers
Both regard upper management to have responsibility for the quality. The degree of responsibilities aligned to upper management however differs between the two. Only Junar foresee critical participation quality professionals working hand in hand with management to assist in planning, measurement, and problem solving (Fonseca, 2015). Deming feels that the worker has a responsibility in problem-solving once they are properly trained. The target for improvement by Deming is having zero defects in products in the long run (Gupta, 2017).
Deming and Juran principles on quality improvement and quality management have a strong relationship on the factors considered in quality improvement. The role of upper management, training and formulating plans before implementing these quality programs ensures a high score. However, the measures used in the implementation of the programs and the emphasis on the upper management participation differ in the trilogy quality program when compared to Deming’s program. Deming cycle and the fourteen management tips are the central premises of the program.