Political instability is often the result of climate-induced disruptions to agricultural systems, but responses to disasters are crucial determinants of when and where conflict may occur. Historically famines have been aggravated by the failure of political elites to respond appropriately and by political economy doctrines that obscured their causes. Little evidence suggests that such events or conflicts over scarce water supplies turn to violence. Climate change will cause populations to migrate, although it is difficult to be precise about exactly how and where, except in the case of low-lying coastal states that face entirely predictable inundation. International political instabilities and related failures to anticipate climate change, curtail fossil fuel usage, and unilateral attempts to adapt to climate disruptions are the major issues facing the future of climate change governance in the Anthropocene.