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Business Ethical Tensions with Governments

coordinate the eventual transition from project to operational status, a process that culminates on the “go live” date. Culture: A set of shared values and beliefs that a group holds and that determines how the group perceives, thinks about and appropriately reacts to its various environments; A collective programming of the mind that distinguishes not only societies (or nations), but also industries, professions and organizations. Dashboard: Common management monitoring tool which provides a snapshot of metrics at any given point in time. Data: Set of specific, objective facts or observations that standing alone have no intrinsic meaning. Data Mining: The process of analyzing databases for “gems” that will be useful in management decision making. Typically, data mining is used to refer to the process of combing through massive amounts of customer data to understand buying habits and to identify new products, features, and enhancements. Database: A collection of data that is formatted and organized to facilitate ease of access, searching, updating, addition, and deletion. A database is typically so large that it must be stored on disk, but sections may be kept in RAM for quicker access. The software program used to manipulate the data in a database is also often referred to as a “database.” DBA (Database Administrator): The person within the information systems department who manages the data and the database. Typically, this person makes sure that all the data that goes into the database is accurate and appropriate, and that all applications and individuals who need access have it. Debugging: The process of examining and testing software and hardware to make sure it operates properly under every condition possible. The term is based on calling any problem a “bug”; therefore, eliminating the problem is called “debugging.” Decentralized Architecture: Architecture in which the hardware, software, networking and data are arranged in a way that distributes the processing and functionality between multiple small computers, servers, and devices and they rely heavily on a network to connect them together. Decentralized IS Organization: IS organization structure that scatters hardware,

software, networks and data components in different locations to address local business needs. Decision Models: Information systems-based model used by managers for scenario planning and evaluation. The information system collects and analyzes the information from automated processes and presents them to the manager to aid in decision making. Decision Right: Indicates who in the organization has the responsibility to initiate, supply information for, approve, implement and control various types of decisions. Differentiation Strategy: A business strategy where the organization qualifies its product or service in a way that allows it to appear unique in the marketplace. (See Cost Leadership Strategy; Focus Strategy.) Digital Native: An individual who has grown up completely fluent in the use of personal technologies and the Web. Digital Signature: A digital code applied to an electronically transmitted message used to prove that the sender of a message (e.g., a file or e-mail message) is truly who he or she claims to be. Direct Cutover: Conversion in which the new system may be installed in stages across locations, or in phases. Dynamic Business Process (also called agile business process): Agile process that iterates through a constant renewal cycle of design, deliver, evaluate, redesign and so on. Economic Value Added (EVA): Valuation method which accounts for opportunity costs of capital to measure true economic profit and revalues historical costs to give and accurate picture of thrue market value of assets. E-mail (electronic mail): A way of transmitting messages over communication networks. Enacted Values: Value and norms that are actually exhibited or displayed in employee behavior. Encryption: The translation of data into a code or a form that can be read only by the intended receiver. Data is encrypted using a key or alphanumeric code and can be decrypted only by using the same key. Engagement: Using social IT to involve stakeholders in the traditional business of the enterprise Social IT such as communities and blogs provide a platform for individuals to join in conversations, create new conversations, offer support to each other, and other activities that create a deeper feeling of connection to the company, brand or enterprise.

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