Conducting Cronbach’s alpha Reliability Analysis using Minitab

Cronbach’s alpha using Minitab

Introduction

Cronbach’s alpha is a common measure of internal consistency (“reliability”), often used when you have multiple Likert questions in a survey/questionnaire that form a scale and you want to determine if the scale is reliable. It is also often used in conjunction with a data reduction technique such as principal components analysis (PCA) or factor analysis.

For example, imagine a researcher wanted to create a questionnaire that measured “job satisfaction”. The questionnaire consisted of eight questions and was completed by a sample of 60 participants. The researcher was satisfied that the eight questions were measuring the “job satisfaction” construct, but wished to know if they were reliably measuring this construct, (i.e., whether the questions used to measure job satisfaction were “internally consistent”). To measure this internal consistency, the researcher calculated Cronbach’s alpha for this eight-question questionnaire.

Note: When using a Cronbach’s alpha, your variables (e.g., the questions in a questionnaire) are often referred to as “items”. When these items are grouped together (e.g., all the questions in a questionnaire), it is often referred to as a “scale”.

In this “quick start” guide, we show you how to carry out a Cronbach’s alpha using Minitab, as well as interpret and report the results from this test. First, we start with the example we use in this guide.


Example

A questionnaire was developed that intended to determine “employee motivation”. The questionnaire consisted of 6 questions (i.e., 6 “items”). A total of 315 participants completed the questionnaire. Each question was measured using a 5-point Likert item from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. In order to understand whether the questions in this questionnaire were internally consistent, a Cronbach’s alpha was run.


Setup in Minitab

In Minitab, we set up the six items that reflected the six questions in our questionnaire (i.e., questions  through to  in columns  through to ). For example, under column  we entered the name of the first question in our questionnaire, Qu1, as follows: . We then did this for  through to . Finally, we entered the scores for each of the six items (i.e., how each participant responded to each of the six questions). These responses were coded from “1” to “5” based on the 5-point Likert item (i.e., “1” for “strongly disagree” through to “5” for “strongly agree”). This is illustrated below:

Data setup for a Cronbach's alpha in MinitabPublished with written permission from Minitab Inc.

 


Test Procedure in Minitab

In this section, we show you the three steps required to analyse your data using Cronbach’s alpha in Minitab.

  • Click Stat > Multivariate > Item Analysis… on the top menu, as shown below:
    Main menu for a Cronbach's alpha in MinitabPublished with written permission from Minitab Inc.

    You will be presented with the following Item Analysis dialogue box:

    Options box for a Cronbach's alpha in MinitabPublished with written permission from Minitab Inc.

  • Transfer all six items (i.e., Qu1 to Qu6) into the Variables: box. You will end up with the dialogue box shown below:
    Options box selected for a Cronbach's alpha in MinitabPublished with written permission from Minitab Inc.

    Note 1: To transfer all six items, you first need to click inside the main left-hand box and select all the items (e.g., C1   Qu1through to C6   Qu6). This will activate the  button (it is usually faded: ). Then, simply press the  button. Alternately, you can double-click on the six items, which will automatically transfer them into the Variables:box.

    Note 2: You can change what results Minitab produces by clicking on  and changing the options, but for the purposes of this “quick start” guide, we have kept the default options selected, as shown below:

    Results options box for a Cronbach's alpha in Minitab

  • Click the  button. The output that Minitab produces is shown below.

Output of the Cronbach’s alpha in Minitab

The Minitab output of the Cronbach’s alpha is shown below:

Output for the dependent t-test in Minitab

The Minitab output provides some useful descriptive statistics, including the sample size for each item (the “Total Count” column), as well as the mean and standard deviation (the “Mean” and “StDev” columns). You are also provided with the Cronbach’s alpha (α) score, which in our example is 0.8230 (the Cronbach’s Alpha row), indicating a high level of internal consistency for our scale. Higher values of Cronbach’s alpha are better. What constitutes a good level of internal consistency differs depending on what source you refer to, but all recommended values are 0.7 or higher. Another valuable section is the final table, which shows the ‘contribution’ or ‘fit’ of each item to the scale, providing useful statistics such as the mean and standard deviation (the “Adj. Total Mean” and “Adj. Total StDev” columns), adjusted Pearson correlations and squared multiple correlation (the “Item-Adj. Total Corr” and “Squared Multiple Corr” columns), and Cronbach’s alpha score (the “Cronbach’s Alpha” column) if an item was removed from the scale.

Interprating Cronbach’s Alpha SPSS Output

Interprating Cronbach’s Alpha SPSS Output

SPSS Statistics produces many different tables. The first important table is the Reliability Statistics table that provides the actual value for Cronbach’s alpha, as shown below:

Cronbach's Alpha OutputPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

From our example, we can see that Cronbach’s alpha is 0.805, which indicates a high level of internal consistency for our scale with this specific sample.

SPSS Statistics

Item-Total Statistics

The Item-Total Statistics table presents the “Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted” in the final column, as shown below:

Cronbach's Alpha OutputPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

This column presents the value that Cronbach’s alpha would be if that particular item was deleted from the scale. We can see that removal of any question, except question 8, would result in a lower Cronbach’s alpha. Therefore, we would not want to remove these questions. Removal of question 8 would lead to a small improvement in Cronbach’s alpha, and we can also see that the “Corrected Item-Total Correlation” value was low (0.128) for this item. This might lead us to consider whether we should remove this item.

Cronbach’s alpha simply provides you with an overall reliability coefficient for a set of variables (e.g., questions). If your questions reflect different underlying personal qualities (or other dimensions), for example, employee motivation and employee commitment, Cronbach’s alpha will not be able to distinguish between these. In order to do this and then check their reliability (using Cronbach’s alpha), you will first need to run a test such as a principal components analysis (PCA). You can learn how to carry out principal components analysis (PCA) using SPSS Statistics, as well as interpret and write up your results, in our enhanced content. You can learn more here. It is also possible to run Cronbach’s alpha in Minitab.

Cronbach’s Alpha (α) Reliability Analysis using SPSS

Cronbach’s Alpha (α) Reliability Analysis using SPSS

Cronbach’s alpha is the most common measure of internal consistency (“reliability”). It is most commonly used when you have multiple Likert questions in a survey/questionnaire that form a scale and you wish to determine if the scale is reliable. If you are concerned with inter-rater reliability, we also have a guide on using Cohen’s (κ) kappa that you might find useful.


Example:

A researcher has devised a nine-question questionnaire to measure how safe people feel at work at an industrial complex. Each question was a 5-point Likert item from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. In order to understand whether the questions in this questionnaire all reliably measure the same latent variable (feeling of safety) (so a Likert scale could be constructed), a Cronbach’s alpha was run on a sample size of 15 workers.


Cronbach’s Alpha (α) Reliability Analysis Procedure

The eight steps below show you how to check for internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha in SPSS Statistics. At the end of these eight steps, we show you how to interpret the results from your Cronbach’s alpha.

  1. Click Analyze > Scale > Reliability Analysis… on the top menu, as shown below:

    Cronbach's Alpha Test MenuPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

  2. You will be presented with the Reliability Analysis dialogue box, as shown below:

    Cronbach's Alpha Dialogue BoxPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

  3. Transfer the variables Qu1 to Qu9 into the Items: box. You can do this by drag-and-dropping the variables into their respective boxes or by using the SPSS Right Arrow Button button. You will be presented with the following screen:

    Cronbach's Alpha Dialogue BoxPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

  4. Leave the Model: set as “Alpha”, which represents Cronbach’s alpha in SPSS Statistics. If you want to provide a name for the scale, enter it in the Scale label: box. Since this only prints the name you enter at the top of the SPSS Statistics output, it is certainly not essential that you do (in our example, we leave it blank).
  5. Click on the SPSS Statistics Button button, which will open the Reliability Analysis: Statistics dialogue box, as shown below:

    Cronbach's Alpha Dialogue BoxPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

  6. Select the ItemScale and Scale if item deleted options in the –Descriptives for– area, and the Correlations option in the –Inter-Item– area, as shown below:

    Cronbach's Alpha Dialogue BoxPublished with written permission from SPSS Statistics, IBM Corporation.

  7. Click the SPSS Continue Button button. This will return you to the Reliability Analysis dialogue box.
  8. Click the SPSS OK Button button to generate the output.

Epidemiology of Suicidal Behavior

Epidemiology of Suicidal Behavior

            Outline (Some possible sources listed at bottom of paper):

  1. United States Epidemiology

  1. Epidemiology in US military with a focus in U.S Army

According to the American Association of Suicidology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States and the 15th leading cause of death globally (Drapeau & McIntosh, 2016; WHO, 2017).  As of 2014, the suicide rate in the US was 13.0 per 100,000 (Curtin, Warner, & Hedegaard. 2016).  2015 data from the CDC list the US national rate of suicide at 13.8 per 100,000 (Drapeau & McIntosh, 2016).  Men have the highest rate of suicide at 21.5 per 100,000 as compared to women with a rate of 6.3 per 100,000.  The age group with the highest suicide rate is that of 45-54 year olds at 20.3 per 100,000 (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. United States suicide rates by age group for years 2005 – 2015. Adapted from “U.S.A Suicide: 2015 Official Final Data” by Drapeau, C. W., & McIntosh, J. L. (for the American Association of Suicidology). (2016).U.S.A. suicide 2015: Official final data. Washington, DC: American Association of Suicidology, dated December 23, 2016, downloaded from http://www.suicidology.org

Gender Differences in Suicidal Behavior

Outline:

  1. Suicidal Ideation in Men versus Women

  1. Suicidal Attempts in Men versus Women

  1. Suicide in Men versus Women

POSSIBLE SOURCES:

http://www.suicidology.org/Portals/14/docs/Resources/FactSheets/2015/2015datapgsv1.pdf?ver=2017-01-02-220151-870

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885157/

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sally_Curtin/publication/301564377_Increase_in_Suicide_in_the_United_States_1999-2014/links/571a31dc08ae408367bc84d6.pdf

https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/suicide-datasheet-a.pdf

https://phc.amedd.army.mil/PHC%20Resource%20Library/2015SurveillanceofSuicidalBehavior.pdf

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS IN BUSINESS

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS IN BUSINESS

June 6, 2016  inteladmin  Off  All,

You provide research services for McDonald’s, a large, multi-national, fast-food company. The CEO has asked each department to undertake a critical review of their systems, processes and practices as part of a major organisational change agenda.  You have been asked to review an area of business practice and present a business report to key stakeholders with recommendations for improving practice.  To provide the basis for your report, you have been asked to conduct a critical review of information sources relevant to the area of practice. You should:

  • Select an area of business practice and give the reason for your choice
  • Undertake a critical review of different information sources (at least three) e.g. research digests, academic and professional literature, online databases, key texts relevant to the selected area of practice.
  • In your write up of the literature review you should explain why you selected that particular source and highlight some of the different research approaches adopted by the authors and comment on the advantages and disadvantages of these different approaches.
  • Draw meaningful conclusions from the review of the different information sources.
  • Make justified recommendations to named stakeholders for sustaining and/or improving practice.

 

Your report structure should include:

  • Title page (report title and their name, submission date)
  • Executive summary (overview, methods of analysis, findings, recommendations)
  • Table of contents (list of numbered sections)
  • Introduction (terms of reference)
  • Main body (headings and sub-headings – these could be for each information source reviewed). Candidates should use a mix of narrative and diagrammatic formats where appropriate to present their findings.
  • Conclusion (including major inferences and recommendations for change)
  • Reference list
  • Appendix if used i.e. information supporting their analysis but not essential to its explanation.

 

Possible areas of business practice include (select one):

 

  • Attracting new customers
  • Improving retention of staff
  • Motivating employees
  • Product development
  • Reputation management

 

You also very welcome to choose one a topic you have identified.

 

Assessment criteria

 

 

Criteria/

Mark

 

F1-3

 

D1-3

 

C1-3

 

B1-3

 

A1-4

 

Legible and well presented. Good spelling and grammar with a logical flow and structure.

10

 

Poorly formatted, many inconsistencies and errors.

 

Basic formatting with some errors and mistakes.

 

Consistent formatting with some errors / omissions.

 

Good presentation with only minor errors / omissions.

 

Excellent presentation and well structured with no errors.

Knowledge and understanding of Research methods & processes

 

20

No consideration of relevant research methods. Little knowledge of research methods, often descriptive. Some knowledge of both research methods and processes. Good understanding of a range of research methods. Excellent understanding of the research process and range of methods.
 

Evaluation of sources and research methods.

 

30

No consideration of sources or research methods. Little knowledge of sources of data or research methods. Some knowledge of a range of sources but little on research methods. Good understanding of a range of sources and methods. Excellent understanding of a range of sources and methods.
 

Knowledge and understanding of research issues in business context.

 

30

 

No consultancy / commercial research specific issues identified.

 

Little understanding of difference between academic and commercial research.

 

Some issues identified but lacks consideration as to how they can be overcome.

 

Issues identified with appropriate suggestions to overcome them.

 

Excellent range of issues identified with well justified suggestions to overcome them.

 

Sourced Information and referencing

10

 

No references.

 

 

Few and insufficient and poorly sourced.

 

Sufficient referencing but limited in range.

 

Good range used and well referenced.

 

Excellent breadth and depth used.

ORGANIZATIONAL FOUNDATION  May 31, 2016  inteladmin  Off  All,

ORGANIZATIONAL FOUNDATION

May 31, 2016  inteladmin  Off  All,

Organizational Foundations

As you strive to grow in your leadership skills and abilities, you will find that the context in which you

work influences your motivation and areas of focus. In a similar vein, your commitment to developing

professionally can contribute toward organizational effectiveness.

To that end, it is critical to recognize the importance of organizational culture and climate. In

particular, through this week’s Learning Resources, you may consider several questions: How do an

organization’s mission, vision, and values relate to its culture? What is the difference between culture

and climate? Moreover, how are culture and climate manifested within the organization?

For this Discussion, you explore the culture and climate of your current organization or one with

which you are familiar. You also consider decisions and day­to­day practices and the way they relate

to the organization’s mission, vision, and values.

To prepare:

  • Review the information related to planning and decision making in health care organizations

presented in the textbook, Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and

Application. Consider how planning and decision making relate to an organization’s mission, vision,

and values, as well as its culture and its climate.

  • Familiarize yourself with the mission, vision, and values of your organization or one with which you

are familiar. Consider how the statements and actions of leaders and others within the organization

support or demonstrate the organizational mission, vision, and values. In addition, note any apparent

discrepancies between word and deed. Think about how this translates into expectations for direct

service providers. Note any data or artifacts that seem to indicate whether behaviors within the

organization are congruent with its mission, vision, and values.

  • Begin to examine and reflect on the culture and climate of the organization. How do culture and

climate differ?

  • Why is it important for you, as a master’s­prepared nurse leader, to be cognizant of these matters?

Post a description of your selected organization’s mission, vision, and values. Describe relevant data,

or artifacts, words, and actions of leaders and others in the organization that support, or perhaps

appear to contradict the organization’s mission, vision, and values statement. In addition, discuss the

organization’s culture and its climate, differentiating between the two. Explain why examining these

matters is significant to your role as a nurse leader.

SHOULD USE APA 6 EDITION

Required Readings

Marquis, B. L., & Huston, C. J. (2015). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

  • Chapter 1, “Decision Making, Problem Solving, Critical Thinking: Requisites for Successful Leadership and Management, and Clinical Reasoning”

 

Chapter 1 provides information relevant to this week’s Discussion and serves as a foundation for topics explored in future weeks of the course. The authors note that decision making, problem solving, critical thinking, and critical reasoning are integral to both leadership and management and beneficial as one examines leadership and management issues. As you read this chapter, focus primarily on the “Decision Making in Organizations” section.

 

  • Chapter 7, “Strategic and Operational Planning”

 

This chapter introduces planning and highlights some of the trends that are likely to impact health care organizations now and in the future. It also addresses vision and mission statements, which are essential for guiding planning and decision making in health care settings.

 

  • Chapter 12, “Organizational Structure”

 

o    “Organizational Culture” (pp. 260–286)

 

This section of the chapter addresses organizational culture.

 

WEB RESOURCES

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html

https://services.hbsp.harvard.edu/services/proxy/content/58471638/58471686/3b788b580bc27ee7686979294dace72f

 

https://hbr.org/2013/05/what-is-organizational-culture

 

ONLINE ASSESSMENT:

http://www.keirsey.com/

 

http://www.leadership-tools.com/360-degree-feedback-leadership.html

 

 

MEDIA RESOURCES

 

http://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6053/01/mm/video_interface/index.html

INTRODUCTION TO MODERN ART AND VISUAL CULTURE 1660-1900

INTRODUCTION TO MODERN ART AND VISUAL CULTURE 1660-1900

May 13, 2016  inteladmin  Off  All,

Essay Guidelines:

  • Stapled, hard copies required.No late exams.
  • Papers must followthe formatting guidelines (see below)
  • You must properly cite all sources using the Chicago Manual of Style. Limit your citations to the assigned Works of art and Readings.

Note: You are encouraged to include images in your essay. Whenever you describe a work of art at any length, as you begin, ideally your reader should be able to see a reproduction of it (you choose the size) on the same page as your description (do this just once; no need to reiterate). Place a caption (in 9-point font) below the image stating the artist’s surname (only), the title of the work (in italics), and its date.

Paul Gauguin, The Vision after the Sermon, 1888 

In general, your writing should follow these three principles:

(i)   Place each work firmly within its social and historical context.

(ii)  Drawing on your own observations, describe the way each image is constructed.

(iii)  Relate your discussion to the relevant Readings and/or Lecture presentations. When you refer to a particular Reading, in a footnote write out the author’s name, the title of their chapter or article, and publication details (see the bottom of this page) – and to indicate your familiarity with the text, in the same footnote briefly summarize their argument.

Essay Questions 

Discuss the changing representations of work (of people working) in the period covered by the course, tocusing your discussion on at least five works of art. Place each work firmly within its social and historical context. Drawing on your own observations, describe the way each image is constructed. Relate your discussion to the relevant Readings and/or Lecture presentations. When you refer to a particular Reading, in a footnote provide a complete reference, and mention briefly summarize their argument.

 

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

How does strategic management in the area of ethics, culture, globalisation and/or the environment demonstrate neoliberal values or depart from neoliberal values?

these 3 following articles are essential and must be incorporated in to the essay and general discussion drawn from sources not prescribed will result in a fail. It is critical only sources I list be discussed –

Essential article: Carter, Clegg and Kornberger (2008) A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book About Studying Strategy, Sage, London.

Essential article: Stansbury, J. and Barry, B. (2007) Ethics Programs and the Paradox of Control Business Ethics Quarterly 17(2): 239-261.

Essential article: Jackall, R. 1988. Moral mazes: the world of corporate managers, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 8.

the following additional articles are accepted in the essay to make up remainder of references, no other sources are acceptable only the ones I have listed!!.

Adams, G. and Balfour, D. (1998) Unmasking Administrative Evil. Sage, London.

Bakan, J. (2004) The Corporation: the pathological pursuit of profit and power London: Constable.
Bauman, Z. (2001) Community. Polity, Cambridge.
Klein, N. (2001) No Logo Flamingo: London.
Knights, D. and Morgan, G. (1990) The Concept of Strategy in Sociology: A Note of Dissent Sociology 24: 475-483.
Mintzberg, H. (1987) The Strategy Concept I: Five Ps for Strategy California Management Review, Fall: 11-24.
Niemark, M. (1995) The selling of ethics: The ethics of business meets the business of ethics Accounting, auditing and accountability 8(3): 81-97.
Roberts, J. (2003)  The manufacture of corporate social responsibility: Constructing corporate sensibility. Organization, 10, 249-266.
Roberts, J. (2001) Corporate governance and the ethics of narcissus, Business Ethics Quarterly 11(1): 109-127.
Schwartz, M. (2000). Why ethical codes constitute an unconscionable regression. Journal of Business Ethics 23: 173-184.
Stansbury, J. and Barry, B. (2007) Ethics programs and the paradox of control Business Ethics Quarterly 17(2): 239-261.
Wray-Bliss, E. (2013) A Crisis of Leadership: Towards an Anti-Sovereign Ethics of Organisation Business Ethics: A European Review 22(1): 86-101

Carter, C., Clegg, S., and Kornberger, M. (2008) Strategy as Practice? Strategic Organization 6(1): 83-99.

Deal, T and Kennedy, A. (1982) Corporate Cultures Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Kunda, G. (1992) Engineering Culture: control and commitment in a high-tech corporation Philadelphia; Temple University Press.
Legge, K. (1995) Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities Basingstoke, Palgrave.
Liu, F. Adn Maitlis, S. (2014) Emotional Dynamics in Strategizing Processes Journal of Management Studies 51(2): 202-234.
Morgan, G. (2006) Images of Organisation, London, Sage.
Ogbonna, E. and Wilkinson, B. (2003) The false promise of organizational culture change: a case study of middle managers in grocery retailing Journal of Management Studies 40(5): 1151-1178.
Ouchi,W. (1981) Theory Z Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Parker, M. (2000) Organizational Culture and Identity London: Sage.
Peters, T. (2001) True confessions Fast Company, December 2001: pps. 78-92.
Peters, T. and Waterman, R. (1982) In search of excellence: lessons from America’s best-run companies New York, Harper and Row.
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2003) Strategizing as Lived Experience… Journal of Management Studies 40(1(: 141-174.
Whittington, R. (2003) The work of strategizing and organizing: for a practice perspective Strategic Organization 1(1): 117-125.
Willmott, H. (1993) Strength is ignorance, slavery is freedom: managing culture in modern organizations Journal of Management Studies 30(4): 515-552

Ambrose, S. (undated) IMF bailouts: familiar, failed medicine for Asian Tigers available at www.igc.org/trac/corner/worldnews/other/other83.html

Anderson, S. and Cavanaugh, J. (2000) The rise of corporate global power Institute for Policy Studies, available at https://s3.amazonaws.com/corpwatch.org/downloads/top200.pdf
Arnold, D. and Bowie, N. (2003) Sweatshops and Respect for Persons Business Ethics Quarterly 13(2):221-242.
Asia Monitor (1997) Blood, sweat, and shears: Working conditions in sports shoe factories in China making shoes for Nike and Reebok pages 1-11, available at www.igc.org/trac/feature/sweatshops/amrcnike.html
Bakan, J. (2004) The Corporation. London, Constable.
Banerjee, S. B. and Linstead, S. (2001) Globalization, Multiculturalism and Other Fictions: Colonialism for the New Millennium? Organization 8(4):683-722.
Bauman, Z. (1998) Globalization: the Human Consequences. Cambridge, Polity.
Clegg, S.; Kornberger, M.; and Pitsis, T. (2008) Managing Organizations London, Sage:
Grint, K. (2005) The Sociology of Work, 3rd Edition. Cambridge: Polity.
Klein, N. (2001) No Logo Flamingo: London.
Knights, D. and Morgan, G. (1990) The Concept of Strategy in Sociology: A Note of Dissent Sociology 24: 475-483.
Knights, D. and Morgan, G. (1991) Corporate Strategy, Organizations, and Subjectivity: A Critique Organisation Studies 12(2): 251-273.
Korten, D. (1995) When Corporations Rule the World Earthscan: London.
Morgan, G. (1997) Images of Organization. London. Sage.
Oxfam (2016) The Hidden Billions. Oxfam Research Reports, Oxfam, Australia
Parker, M. (2002) Against Management. Cambridge. Polity.
Pilger, J. (2003) New rulers of the World. London, Verso.
Ritzer, G. (2010) Globalisation: A Basic Text. Wiley-Blackwell.

Banerjee and Linstead (2001) Globalisation File

Arnold and Bowie 2003 Sweatshops and Respect for Persons, Business Ethics Quarterly File

Carter et al (2008) Strategy As Practice File

Whittington (2003) On the work of Strategizing File

Parker 2000 Chapter on the management of culture File

Willmott (1993) article very critical on the management of culture File

Thompson and McHugh 1995 Chapter on managing culture File

Schwartz 2000 A critique of ethical codes, Journal of Business Ethics File

Rampersad 2003 Ethics and strategy File

Parsons 2007 Ethics and businesses communication strategies File

Neimark (1995) The Selling of Ethics File

Husted and Allen 2000 Ethics and strategy File

BASED ON JAPAN AS AN MAJOR POWER IN THE INDO PACIFIC REGION ANSWER THE FOLLOWING.

BASED ON JAPAN AS AN MAJOR POWER IN THE INDO PACIFIC REGION ANSWER THE FOLLOWING.

What are its main security interests in the region.
How we can interpret its strategic choices in the region.
How its interests and strategy impact the other great powers.
How the other great powers have responded.

Make Sure

Critical components of the main security interests are clearly
identified, explained and put in perspective.

Clearly identifies and explains strategic choices made by the

chosen country, clarifies the hierarchy between these choices.

Clearly identifies and explains the impact of the country’s strategy on the Indo-Pacific Region and how other actors have responded.

Use any of the Folowing references

Evelyn Goh, “How Japan matters in the evolving East Asian security order,” International Affairs, 87(4), 2011, 887-902.

Yasuhiro Izumikawa, “Explaining Japanese Antimilitarism: Normative and Realist Constraints on Japan’s Security Policy”, International Security, 35(2), 2010, 123-160.

Kenneth Pyle, Japan Rising: The Resurgence of Japanese Power and Purpose (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2007)

Rischard Samuels, Securing Japan: Tokyo’s Grand Strategy and the Future of East Asia (NY: Cornell University Press, 2008).

Christopher Hughes, Japan’s Re-emergence as a ‘Normal’ Military Power (London: IISS, 2013).

Adam P. Liff, “Japan’s Defense Policy: Abe the Evolutionary”, Washington Quarterly, 38(2), 2015, 79-99.

 

Suppose that you were thinking about opening a new restaurant. What type of information would you use to go about forecasting demand and sales?

Assignment 1 – 3308: Winter 2017
1. Suppose that you were thinking about opening a new restaurant. What type of information would you use to go about forecasting demand and sales?
2. Why is process thinking important in operations management? Thinking of yourself as an “operations manager” for your education, describe the processes you would put in place to improve your performance as a student.
3. If a manager asked you whether to use time series forecasting models or regression-based forecasting models, what would you tell him or her?
Mini Case – answer the questions at the end of the case below
Tri-Metro Investments: Forecasting Help Desk Demand by Day
“Hello, is this the Investment Management Help Desk?” said a tired voice on the other end of the telephone line at 7:42 am. “Yes, how can I help you?” said Thomas Bourbon, customer service representative (CSR). “I’ve got a problem. My best customer, with investment assets of over $10 million in our bank, received her monthly trust account statement. She says we computed the market value of one of her stocks inaccurately by using the wrong share price, which makes her statement $42,000 too low. I assured her we would research the problem and get back to her by the end of the day. Also, do you realize that I waited over four minutes before you answered my call?” said the trust administrator, Claire Woodworth. “Ms. Woodworth, give me the customer’s account number and the stock in question, and I will get back to you within an hour. Let’s solve the customer’s problem first. I apologize for the long wait,” said Bourbon in a positive and reassuring voice.
The Help Desk supports fiduciary operations activities worldwide by answering questions from company employees, such as portfolio managers, stock traders, backroom company process managers, branch bank managers, accountants, and trust account administrators. These internal customers originate over 98 percent of the volume of Help Desk inquiries. Over 50 different internal processes and organizational units call the Help Desk. Some external customers such as large estate trust administrators are tied directly to their accounts via the Internet and occasionally call the Help Desk directly.
The Help Desk is the primary customer contact unit within fiduciary operations, employing 14 full-time customer service representatives (CSRs), three CSR support employees, and three managers, for a total of 20 people. The three CSR support employees work full-time on research in support of the CSRs answering the telephone.
The Help Desk handles about 2,000 calls a week and the pressure to reduce unit cost is ongoing. Forecast accuracy is a key input to better staffing decisions that minimize costs and maximize service. The accompanying table shows the number of calls per day (Call Volume).
The senior manager of the Help Desk, Dot Gifford, established a team to try to evaluate short-term forecasting. The Help Desk Staffing Team consists of Gifford, Bourdon, Woodworth, and a new employee Gail Hamlet, who has an undergraduate degree in business management from Mount Saint Vincent University. This four-person team is charged with developing a long term forecasting procedure for the Help Desk. Gifford asked the team to make an informal presentation of their analysis in 10 days. The primary job of analysis has fallen on Hamlet, the newly hired operations analyst. It is her chance to make good impression on her boss and colleagues.
In trying to develop a longer-term forecasting procedure for their short-term forecasting, it is important to analyze qualitative information before rushing to calculate quantitative methods. Hamlet asks the team the following questions:
1. What are the service management characteristics of the CSR Job? Expand upon what you believe would be the technical (operational), marketing, and human interactions skills the Help Desk employees would have to have and/or deal with in order for the team to properly plan a procedure for accurate forecasting.
2. What do you think the mission/strategy of the Help Desk would be? Why is the Help Desk Important? Who are its customers?
3. How would you handle the customer affected by the inaccurate stock price in the bank’s trust account system? Would you take a passive or proactive approach? Justify your answer.
4. Using the data on call volume below, how would you forecast short-term demand? Show three methods: a) the average; b) a 2 period moving- for all 16 days – show your graph for the 2 period moving average; and c) exponential smoothing using a constant of 0.3.

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