I’m working on a Philosophy practice test / quiz and need guidance to help me understand better.
PART I. DIAGRAMMING. Each argument will be followed by possible diagrams for it. Choose the correct diagram and write the answer in the blank after the diagrams.
It is important to obey traffic laws, because they are for our safety.
Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D
① ② ② ②
② ① ① ①
The correct diagram for argument 1 is: Diagram ______.
Studying logic has some surprising benefits. First, studying logic benefits the individual, because it improves his/her reasoning abilities. Second, studying logic improves the local community, because it improves the average level of reasoning abilities among citizens. Third, rationality and logic may be employed to understand world problems and solve them.
Diagram A Diagram B Diagram C Diagram D
③ ⑤ ① ② ④ ⑥ ③ ⑤
② ④ ⑥ ② ④ ⑥ ③ ⑤ ② ④ ⑥
① ③ ⑤ ① ①
The correct diagram for argument #2 is: Diagram ______.
Whether or not the United States of America negotiates with North Korea, there will be a large-scale war on the Korean peninsula in the future. If the United States of America does negotiate with North Korea, there will be a large-scale war on the Korean peninsula in the future, because negotiation has never been more than a stalling tactic for Kim Jong Un, since his regime maintains power solely by promising inevitable warfare to the military class of North Korean society, for four reasons. First, he spends so much money on the military that his people expect it to be used eventually. Second, there is no peaceful use for the military build-up. Third, his regime brainwashes his people to think only of inevitable war. Fourth, the military class is the only powerful class in North Korean society. If the United States of America does not negotiate with North Korea, there will be a large-scale war on the Korean peninsula in the future, for the North Korean build-up of a hydrogen bomb arsenal meant solely for the destruction of the United States of America will result in a preemptive strike, which will spark a large-scale war.
Diagram A Diagram B
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Diagram C Diagram D
⑤⑥⑦⑧ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧
⑨⑩ ③ ⑩
The correct diagram for argument #3 is: Diagram _______.
PART II. FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE. Identify the following fallacies by name. Where sub-types are possible, identify both type and sub-type.
You really ought to vote for Jane Barker for State Senator. Poor Jane has faced one adversity after another her whole life. She was born into dire poverty, both her parents died when she was a child, and two years ago she was diagnosed as having diabetes.
In November our party is going to triumph. Don’t be the only one to vote for the other side. Join the crowd that will be victorious at the polls in November! Vote for us!
You know, Bill, all the cultural elite of this country completely hate the policies of the administration. I believe that you are part of the elite. You hate those policies, too, don’t you?
Grandpa Plug argues that I should not start smoking tobacco. But he’s on a lung machine and still smokes. It must be good stuff! Since he doesn’t follow his own advice, I’ll reject it.
3.Jim said that he is in favor of the constitutional amendment. But Jim is terribly overweight, and I don’t like overweight people. So, I’m against the amendment.
4.State government raised taxes and spent more than it had, and businesses suffered. Then state government raised taxes even higher and spent even more than it had, and families suffered. Then it raised taxes and spending, and government bonds became junk. Then it raised taxes still higher and went still further into debt, and everyone started to leave the state and the tax base shrank and confidence collapsed, causing the remaining populace to suffer. So, in order to stop the suffering in the state, we should increase taxes even more and use greater deficit spending.
5.We have just heard Allison argue in favor of legalizing pot for medical purposes. But Allison really wants all drugs to be legalized—heroin, crack, crystal meth, the works. That’s her real argument. Clearly this argument is crazy.
6.Johnny stole cookies from the cookie jar, and his mother wants to know if he did it. But the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution gives everyone the right not to testify against himself. Therefore, Johnny can refuse to answer his mother.
7.So, you have been arguing that our car is too old and that we should get a new one. Well, speaking of cars, I saw an incredible crash on the freeway earlier today. One car was on fire, billowing huge clouds of smoke in the air, and another was flipped over, blocking a whole line of traffic. Boy, I’m sure glad I’m OK.
8.Renee argues in favor of reducing the patient load of our nurses. But it’s obvious why she says this. Renee is a nurse herself, so of course she wants a reduced load. Nobody should pay attention to her arguments.
10.There are two types of people in the world: risk-takers and risk-avoiders. You want to be one of our group, right? Well, we take lots of risks. So, you should take lots of risks, too.
11.I recently heard that you have decided not to support my cause on the Board of Trustees. I hope that’s not true. Remember that I have photos of you in the parking lot of the Magic Bullet Strip Club talking to that dancer….
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