The study by Gold (2010) which talks about strategies and tricks used by the cyber criminals mentions of their motives. These criminals are mostly individuals who want to accomplish specific agenda for self-interest. On the other hand, in the recent past, some criminals are state-funded to carry out fraud activities on behalf of the country. Some of the fraudulent activities carried out by state-funded gangs involve access to security information of the target country. The information obtained is used for material gain or poses security threats to the other state. Gold (2010) elucidates that the technology used in hacking has grown over the years. The hackers rely on social engineering techniques to carry out different cyber-related criminal activities. On a similar argument, the study by Mansfield-Devine (2017) titled “Bad behaviour: exploiting human weaknesses. Computer Fraud & Security” states that the technology and techniques used in online frauds have evolved over the years. The evolution of technology continues to diversify the technicality of realizing the motives of the criminals. As the technology evolves, new targets emerge, and the attackers aim at different aspects from what was initially known. “A security assessment of state e-government websites study” by Zhao (2010) explores the increased attacks on governments’ websites. This study relates to Mansfield-Devine (2017) because they all mentions of the result of evolution in technology. The attacks are unpredictable and hard to monitor. Probably, this could be due to their secrecy. Zhao states that governments’ websites are advancing to store sensitive information due to the evolution of technology as mentioned by Mansfield-Devine (2017). As such, the criminals are also changing their agendas. The criminals have started working to curtail the operations of the government with the aim of sabotaging and painting dirty the name of a given regime


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