abstract form A type of filmic organization in which the
parts relate to one another through repetition and variation of
such visual qualities as shape, color, rhythm, and direction of
Academy ratio The standardized shape of the film frame
established by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
In the original ratio, the frame was 1¹∕³ times as wide as it was
high (1.33:1); later the width was normalized at 1.85 times the
height (1.85:1).
aerial perspective A cue for suggesting depth in the image by
presenting objects in the distance less distinctly than those in the
anamorphic lens A lens for making widescreen films using
regular Academy ratio frame size. The camera lens takes in a
wide field of view and squeezes it onto the frame, and a similar
projector lens unsqueezes the image onto a wide theater screen.
angle of framing The position of the frame in relation to the
subject it shows: above it, looking down (a high angle); horizontal,
on the same level (a straight-on angle); below it, looking up (a low
angle). Also called camera angle.
animation Any process whereby artificial movement is created
by photographing a series of drawings (see also cel animation),
objects, or computer images one by one. Small changes in position,
recorded frame by frame, create the illusion of movement.
aspect ratio The relationship of the frame’s width to its height.
The standard Academy ratio is currently 1.85:1.
associational form A type of organization in which the film’s
parts are juxtaposed to suggest similarities, contrasts, concepts,
emotions, and expressive qualities.
asynchronous sound Sound that is not matched temporally with
the movements occurring in the image, as when dialogue is out of
synchronization with lip movements.
auteur The presumed or actual author of a film, usually identified
as the director; also sometimes used in an evaluative sense to
distinguish good filmmakers (auteurs) from bad ones.
axis of action In the continuity editing system, the imaginary
line that passes through the main actors or the principal movement.
The axis of action defines the spatial relations of all the elements
of the scene as being to the right or left. The camera is not
supposed to cross the axis at a cut and thus reverse those spatial
relations. The axis of action is also called the 180° line. See also
180° system, screen direction.
backlighting Illumination cast onto the figures in the scene from
the side opposite the camera, usually creating a thin outline of
highlighting on those figures.
Blu-ray disc (or BD) A high-definition digital medium for home
video, similar to a DVD but having a higher storage capacity and
producing a higher-resolution imag


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