boom A pole on which a microphone can be suspended above
the scene being filmed and that is used to change the microphone’s
position as the action shifts.
camera angle See angle of framing.
canted framing A view in which the frame is not level; either
the right or the left side is lower than the other, causing objects in
the scene to appear slanted out of an upright position.
categorical form A type of filmic organization in which the
parts treat distinct subsets of a topic. For example, a film about the
United States might be organized into 50 parts, each devoted to a
cel animation Animation that uses a series of drawings on
pieces of celluloid, called cels for short. Slight changes between
the drawings combine to create an illusion of movement.
CGI Computer-generated imagery: using digital software
systems to create figures, settings, or other material in the frame.
cheat cut In the continuity editing system, a cut that presents
continuous time from shot to shot but that mismatches the
positions of figures or objects.
cinematography A general term for all the manipulations of the
film strip by the camera in the shooting phase and by the laboratory
in the developing phase.
close-up A framing in which the scale of the object shown is
relatively large; most commonly, a person’s head seen from the neck
up, or an object of a comparable size that fills most of the screen.
closure The degree to which the ending of a narrative film
reveals the effects of all the causal events and resolves (or “closes
off”) all lines of action.
constructive editing Editing that suggests a scene’s space by
providing only portions of it, without an establishing shot.
continuity editing A system of cutting to maintain continuous
and clear narrative action. Continuity editing relies on matching
screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to
shot. For specific techniques of continuity editing, see axis of
action, crosscutting, cut-in, establishing shot, eyeline match,
match on action, reestablishing shot, screen direction, shot/
reverse shot.
contrast In cinematography, the difference between the brightest
and the darkest areas within the frame.
crane shot A shot with a change in framing accomplished by
placing the camera above the subject and moving through the air
in any direction.
crosscutting Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of
action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously.
cut (1) In filmmaking, the joining of two strips of film together
with a splice. (2) In the finished film, an instantaneous change
from one framing to another. See also jump cut.


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