The Informative Content

Identity, meaning, transmission, and creation in music occur at the intersection of music as sound and music as culture.

Ethnomusicology and anthropology have examined this intersection resulting in definitions and concepts of culture.

Identities and expressions may be discovered through examinations of society, culture, community, nation, diaspora, and self. These identities may then come together through the process of syncretism.

Musical tradition is a process of creative transformation. These transformations are very much a part of music traditions worldwide.

Chapter 2

Part 1: The Informative Content

1. Define and/or Comment the following terms:

Key Terms Definitions or Explanations or comments
 Ethnomusicology  

 

 

Fieldwork  

 

 

Culture (Tylor definition)

 

 

 

 

Cultures (as social entities distinct from societies)  

 

 

Society  

 

 

Social institutions  

 

 

Identity  

 

 

Nation-state  

 

 

Nation  

 

 

Nationalist music  

 

 

Diaspora  

 

 

Virtual communities

 

 
Musical syncretism

 

 

 

 

Musicultural

 

 

 
 Rituals

 

 

 
 Compositions

 

 

 
 Improvisation

 

 

 
 Arranging

 

 

 
 Interpretation

 

 

 
 Tradition (as a process)

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 2: Questions/Music Listening and Analysis

The Gamelan—An Indonesian Orchestra of Bronze

A gamelan consists of a large number of instruments—mainly idiophone percussion instruments such as gongs, drums, cymbals, and xylophone-like bronze metallophones played in intricately coordinated ways. Although gamelan musicians from Bali and Java employ similar instruments, have related histories, and musical principles, their musics are strikingly different in sound and character.

2. Listen to CD1-7 (Java) and CD2-12 (Bali) and describe the sounds, timbres, and elements of each. Answer the questions in the Chart below to compare and contrast the two performances.

  CD1-7 CD2-12
Style(s) Javanese Gamelan Balinese Gamelan
Briefly describe the various sounds

 

 

   
How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

 

   
In which ways are the performances similar?

 

 

   
In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

 

 

   

 

Multiphonic Throat Singing

Singers in the khoomii tradition of Mongolia, the khoomei tradition of Tuva, and the chant traditions of Tibetan monks produce simultaneous multiple tones through manipulations of their vocal apparatus, as demonstrated, for example, on CD ex. # 1-6. In this recording, all sounds except for the stringed lute-like instrument (tobshuur) are produced by the human voice.

3. Listen carefully to Chandami Nutag CD1-6.  List and describe the various sounds you are hearing in this music from Mongolia.

 

4. Listen to and write a response to a performance by the late Paul Pena on CD1-18.  Paul Pena was a blind blues musician who mastered the kargyraa subtype of Tuvan khoomei.  Paul traveled to Tuva and won the national khoomei competition with this song.  Describe the sounds Pena produces here – how would you categorize them? Blues? Tuvan?  A combination of both?

 

5. Answer the questions in the Chart below to compare and contrast Chandami Nutag CD1-6 and Kargyraa Moan CD1-18:

  CD1-6 CD1-18
Style(s) Mongolian khoomei Blues/Tuvan khoomei synthesis
Briefly describe the various vocal sounds

 

 

   
How do you think the sounds may have been produced?

 

   
In which ways are the performances similar?

 

 

   
In which ways are the performances dissimilar?

 

 

   

Chapter 2 Music Journal – Part 3: Music Beyond Our Textbook

6. Select and profile two songs from sources beyond our textbook recordings—from your own music collection—mp3, mp4 downloads, CD’s and DVD’s; and from numerous web sources for music and video such as YouTube, npr.org, etc.

One song must be an example of World Music—traditional/indigenous or popular, the other song can be from any country (United States is OK) and represent any genre(rock, hip-hop, blues, gospel, black metal, R&B, jazz, country, soul, etc.)

Your two song selections are not exclusively tied to Chapter 2 Content–this gives you latitude to freely select music you ENJOY and WANT TO LISTEN TO.

Include material facts (you may not be able to provide all of these – so its OK to omit those you are unable to find) about each song you select such as:

· The song title

· The name of the band or performing artist, the musicians and their respective instruments or voice, the composer(s), the recording dates, and record label.

· The style “genre” of music represented in your song.

· Connections between the song and society.

· The importance of the primary performer of the song.

· A history of the song such as considerations of other performers who may have also recorded it—a cover song.

· List any musical characteristics you notice in the music such as tempo, texture, timbres, mood conveyed, meter, dynamics, improvisational style, etc.  Look at our “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” page for help with this.

· Your connections to the song – its meaning for you, its identity.

· What mood was conveyed in the music?  How did the music make you feel?

· Did the music remind you of other music you were already familiar with?

· Was the music complex – many different layers of musical activity going on at the same time; or was the texture less busy – containing just one, two, or three different parts occurring at the same time.

Part 4: Your Chapter 2 Reflections

What, in this chapter, was new to me?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What, in this chapter, would I like to know more about?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Listen to all of the music examples from Chapter 2. Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the most? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Of the musical examples in this chapter, which did I enjoy the least or find to be challenging to listen to? Why? Please include any of the “Musical Characteristics To Listen For” you notice in the music.

Strawberries

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