Geology

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

f Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

Stratigraphic Nomenclature

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

North American Stratigraphic Code

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

Halifax and Goldenville Formations

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

A formation as a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

supercontinent Pangea

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

How Rocks are Named

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

Nova Scotia Geology

The rocks of Atlantic Canada represent almost a billion years of history and record the tectonic events that have
shaped this planet and this region. From mountain building collisions of continents to rifting that split apart the
supercontinent Pangea, it is all recorded in the rocks.
In this assignment we will take a look at the ages and types of some of the rocks that form Nova Scotia. We will be
working with the Geology Map of Nova Scotia. This publication contains an amazing amount of information and is
recommended for anybody interested in the rocks and geological history of this province. But before we can start
we have to understand how to read a geological map.
How Rocks are Named
To identify layers of rock, geologists have created several categories to distinguish one rock layer from another.
The basic unit in this system of classification is the formation. Often this will be abbreviated to Fm. in usage. The
Halifax Formation, or Halifax Fm. for example. A formation is a rock unit that has a distinctive appearance; a
geologist can tell it apart from the rock layers around it. Formations will usually have one distinctive type of rock,
the Halifax Formation is predominately slate, but they may often include a variety of rock types. Formations must
also be thick enough and extensive enough to plot on a map.
Formations can also be subdivided into smaller units called members (Mb).
Formations can also be lumped together into larger units called groups (Gp). The Meguma Group is comprised of
the Halifax and Goldenville Formations.
Members make up formations. Formations make up groups.
When geologists propose a new name, they must publish a formal description that includes a full description of the
rock unit and the location of the type locality. The procedures for classifying and naming rock units are contained
in the North American Stratigraphic Code, prepared by the North American Commission on Stratigraphic
Nomenclature. All unit names are formal and should be capitalized in use.
Map Reading
Geological maps are overflowing with information but you have to know how to extract it. The rock units
(members, formations, and groups) are indicated with different colours and symbols. The age of the unit is often
conveyed by the stylized letter that represents a specific period in the geologic time scale. A unit that spans more
than one period in age will have both letters.
This symbol indicates that this unit is of Devonian – Carboniferous age (DC).
The smaller letters following refer to the unit name (or in some cases the rock type) – in this case
the Fountain Lake Group.
Sometimes a smaller letter will precede the age indicating the epic; for example, E-early, M-middle, L-late.
All this information is recorded in the map legend.
Next to the symbol there will be a description of the unit t

, Long-term (current) use of insulin

Chapter 2: Neoplasms (C00-D49), contains the classification of all types of neoplasms: malignant, benign, uncertain behavior, and unspecified nature using the Neoplasm table located immediately after the alphabetic index (verify neoplasm codes in the tabular as usual). Make sure to review the chapter specific guidelines as well as the instructional note in at the beginning of the neoplasm table.

  • Neoplasms are classified according to behavior (malignant, benign, etc.), anatomical site and morphology (carcinoma, leukemia, etc.). Carefully examine the guidelines when coding a history of neoplasm. Make sure to distinguish between primary and secondary neoplasms and apply the neoplasm sequencing rules.
  • Certain benign neoplasms, such as prostatic adenomas, may be found in the specific body system chapters. To properly code a neoplasm, it is necessary to determine from the record if the neoplasm is benign, in-situ, malignant, or of uncertain histologic behavior. If malignant, any secondary (metastatic) sites should also be determined.
  • The neoplasm table in the Alphabetic Index should be referenced first. However, if the histological term is documented, that term should be referenced first, rather than going immediately to the Neoplasm Table.

For example, if the documentation indicates “adenoma,” refer to the term in the Alphabetic Index to review the entries under this term and the instructional note to “see also neoplasm, by site, benign.” The table provides the proper code based on the type of neoplasm and the site.

  • It is important to select the proper column in the table that corresponds to the type of neoplasm. The Tabular List should then be referenced to verify that the correct code has been selected from the table and that a more specific site code does not exist.

See the ICD-10-CM Codebook Section I.C.2 for the full guidelines. Refer to them often as you code.

Chapter 3: Disease of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism (D50-D89), covers the coding of various types of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs including anemia, coagulation disorders and diseases of WBCs. This is one of the shortest chapters in ICD. These guidelines are reserved for future guideline expansion so the coder will rely on the General Coding Guidelines and instructional notes in the tabular.

Chapter 4: Endocrine, Nutritional, and Metabolic Diseases (E00-E89) discusses the coding of diseases of the endocrine glands, nutritional disorders, and metabolic and immunity disorders. It is important that you are able to describe the different types of diabetes and how the type of diabetes impacts the code selection in ICD-10-CM. Pay particular attention to the guidelines in reference to sequencing and secondary diabetes and coding of hypo and hyperglycemia.

  • The diabetes mellitus codes are combination codes that include the type of diabetes mellitus, the body system affected, and the complications affecting that body system.
  • More than one codes within a particular category may be assigned as necessary to describe all of the complications of the disease may be used. They should be sequenced based on the reason for a particular encounter. Assign as many codes from categories E08 – E13 as needed to identify all of the associated conditions that the patient has.
  • If the type of diabetes mellitus is not documented in the medical record the default is E11.-, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • If the documentation in a medical record does not indicate the type of diabetes but does indicate that the patient uses insulin, code E11, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, should be assignedCode Z79.4, Long-term (current) use of insulin, or Z79.84, Long term (current) use of oral hypoglycemic drugs, should also be assigned to indicate that the patient uses insulin or hypoglycemic drugs.
  • Code Z79.4 should not be assigned if insulin is given temporarily to bring a type 2 patient’s blood sugar under control during an encounter.
  • Codes under categories E08, Diabetes mellitus due to underlying condition, E09, Drug or chemical induced diabetes mellitus, and E13, Other specified diabetes mellitus, identify complications/manifestations associated with secondary diabetes mellitus.