Policy Outcomes (5.5 page paper) Construct constitutive and operational definitions for any three (3) of the following actions and outcome variables: Program expenditure Equality of educational opportunity Personnel turnover National….
Describe the functions of both arteries and veins.
Human Organ Systems
The human body is truly remarkable and is designed to function effectively. Organs are important structures composed of different tissues that facilitate specific functions within the body. Organs function as part of an integrated group of structures known as organ systems. These organ systems form the organizational units that are responsible for crucial processes necessary for sustaining life. Examples of organ systems include, but are not limited to, the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, and the respiratory system. Even organ systems do not function alone. These systems work together, interacting with other organs in a functional network that keeps the body in balance. (Look up the term homeostasis in your text.) When homeostasis or the normal functioning of organ systems is disrupted, disease may develop, causing injury to the body or even death.
The following case studies detail an outcome associated with a disease or organ malfunction. Select 1 study to investigate further for your assignment.
Critically evaluate the information provided, and correlate it with the organ systems that are affected in the scenario. Use the information that you have gathered to answer the assignment questions that follow the case study. Present your work as an APA-formatted research report.
Recommended: In addition to the case studies, click on the following links to view materials to increase your understanding and enhance your analysis of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Case Study 1:
Atherosclerosis is narrowing of the arteries caused by the accumulation of fatty deposits on the arterial walls. On June 22, 2002, the St. Louis Cardinals were preparing for their upcoming baseball game against the Chicago Cubs. Concern arose when their prized pitcher, 33-year old Darryl Kile did not show up for practice. Soon after, he was found still in his hotel room where he had suddenly died in his sleep (New York Times, 2002). It was discovered that the cause of death was related to three of his coronary arteries being 80–90% blocked as a result of atherosclerosis (New York Times, 2002), which ultimately caused him to suffer a heart attack.
Answer the following questions in regard to this case study:
- Why would atherosclerosis result in a heart attack? Provide a brief explanation based on how the heart functions.
- How are arteries different from veins and capillaries? Describe the functions of both arteries and veins.
- Vertebrates and some invertebrates have a closed circulatory system. Explain the advantage of having a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system
Case Study 2:
Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing an estimated 438,000 deaths—or about 1 out of every 5 smokers—each year (National Cancer Institute, 2008).
Mr. Amos is 57 years old and has been smoking for the past 30 years of his life. A recent doctor’s visit revealed that Mr. Amos has stage 3 lung cancer, characterized by his symptoms of nagging chest pain, fatigue, coughing up blood, substantial weight loss, and increased carbon dioxide levels in his blood. The doctor informed Mr. Amos that had he quit his smoking habit several years ago, he would have reduced his risk for developing lung cancer later in life. Mr. Amos immediately began treatment for the lung cancer that had metastasized to his lymph nodes.
Answer the following questions regarding this case study:
- What main components in cigarettes affect the respiratory system? Explain their effects on specific organs, cells, and processes in the respiratory system.
- There are alternate mechanisms of transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the blood. Explain how smoking might lead to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
- Can smoking affect other organ systems of the body? Give specific examples, and briefly explain your answer.
Follow these guidelines for your paper:
- Utilize at least 2 credible sources to support the arguments presented in the paper. Make sure you cite them appropriately within your paper, and list the references in APA format on your Reference page.
- Your paper should be 2–3 pages in length, not counting the Title page, Abstract, and Reference page. In accordance with APA formatting requirements, it should be double-spaced and include a running head and page numbers.
American Lung Association. (2018). How lungs work. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/how-l…
The Franklin Institute. (2017). How your body is like a factory. Retrieved from https://www.fi.edu/heart/how-you-body-is-like-a-fa…
Taylor, T. (2018). Cardiovascular system. Retrieved from http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html