Relationship hetween Pain and Anxiety

Effect of Music Therapy
Research indicates music therapy
provides distraction, promotes relaxation,
and decreases anxiety (Engwall
& Duppils, 2009). Music therapy has
a beneficial effect on a patient’s perceived
pain, relaxation, respiratory
rate, self-reported anxiety level, and
the amount of analgesia required for
effective pain management (American
Music Therapy Association,
2010). When used in conjunction
with pharmacologie pain management
strategies, music therapy promotes
a sense of well-being and an
overall positive patient experience
(Walworth, Rumana, Nguyen, &
Jarred, 2008). While music therapy
has the propensity to promote distraction
and relaxation, limited
research has focused on the effectiveness
of music therapy for pain management
in postoperative patients
outside a controlled environment
Goanna Briggs Institute, 2009).
Relationship hetween Pain
and Anxiety
Postoperative pain, while an expected
consequence of a surgical
procedure, is influenced by psychological
factors, such as fear and anxiety
(Engwall & Duppils, 2009). Because
trait anxiety inherently is individualized
and affects the ability to
address a perceived threat, persons
with heightened anxiety may experience
more postoperative pain than
those who are less prone to anxiety
(Lin, Lin, Huang, Hsu, & Lin, 2011).
Conversely, patients with low trait
anxiety may be more pain tolerant
than those with high trait anxiety.
Researchers recommend interventions
should be stratified based on
the participant’s trait anxiety score
(Binns-Turner, 2008; Nilsson, 2008).
Contrary to trait anxiety, state anxiety
refers to feeling nervous or anxious
when faced with an immediate
danger or stressful situation. It is
transient, fluctuates over time, and
varies in intensity

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Question description 1. Discuss the characteristics or traits that children exhibit relative to personality and how these might look in a child who is characterized as “difficult.” What can be….