HELP ON TWO HOUR ETHICS TEST!

Kayla Cureton

3/1/17

Prof. Romo

Critical Review

Critical Review

Context/puzzle: When reading the title of this reading the first thought that came to my head was

that the reading would be about “why some get more sick than others”. Of course that was

foolish of me to think when the beginning title is Understanding The Resource Curse, which

automatically grabbed my attention. The definition of “resource curse” is the effects that having

a high demand resource may have on ones country, whether it being economic, or political. A lot

of people assume that having such a resource that is in high demand is a amazing thing and must

bring great things to that country, when in reality it only brings damage and conflict. This

reading is about the different experiences of the three largest oil countries, which are Venezuela,

Nigeria and Kazakhstan, it goes in details on how some countries may manage having this curse

some little better then other countries. These three countries are each one of the largest oil

exporters right now, they all suffer from the resource curse, how ever they each handle it

differently.

The most puzzling topic on this article to completely understand in my opinion I the

resource curse, you can not completely analyze each country without knowing in depth what the

resource curse actually is. The resource curse is something that can cause harm and war to the

country suffering from it. The author thoroughly explains this and makes sure that the reader

understands exactly what it is and its consequences. He goes on to explain having such oil

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State their name: Timmerman (2012)
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Do not write in first person. Rephrase this sentence.
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an
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Only use these when we do an outline of a journal, not for an essay.
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Avoid using the word “thing” in academic writing. Mainly because it is too vague. Instead if you catch yourself using “thing,” stop and state what you really mean. In this case “thing” could mean “prosperity” “growth” “development” etc. The list goes on, but we would not know what you meant unless you tell us.
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Instead of saying “this reading” you can directly state the name of the author of the article and the year in which the article was published. In this case, you can say: Timmerman (2012) explores the different experiences……

exploitation can change the political as well as social structures in a negative way and can

negatively affect the economy in ways of no return. The author explains how oil has become so

popular and what it has been used for, from being used as a lubricant to being used in weapons it

has become something in high demand that has put a new change in globalization. This part of

the reading I have to say was my favorite because it did give me the opportunity to really

understand exactly what resource curse is and the affects that it does have on countries. A lot of

people are unaware, myself included and this part of the reading definitely bought to my

attention and opened my eyes to it.

The author explains then goes on to explain the causes and the effects of depending on oil

and the way that it causes poor growth in the economy as well as decreases social and political

institutions. “The explanations include the change in the role of the government towards the

market, especially after nationalizing part or the whole of their oil industry and the increasing

power of elites and interest groups who use the oil rents to keep their positions. These changes

have a number of negative effects such as the distorted economic growth characterized by Dutch

Disease and the increasing difference in economic income that forces a majority of the

population into poverty” (Timmerman, p5.2012)

Argument/Evidence:

The arguments of this readings involves the three countries that have the largest oil exportation

which as stated above are Venezuela, Nigeria and Kazakhstan. The author explains each

countries and its argument in detail starting with Venezuela and how at the end of 2010, it had

the largest production of petroleum in South America. Not only that but it was also the worlds 9th

largest producer, that had a share of 15.3%. (Timmerman, p5.2012) The author then goes on in

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(Timmerman 2012, 5)
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(Timmerman 2012, 5)
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If a quote is longer than three sentences, you must make it a block quote. Also, usually after inserting a quote, you must explain it. You should not leave the quote unexplained.
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Would other political scientists agree with Timmerman (2012)? Why or why not?
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proofread this sentence. The word explain is used twice.
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do not write in first person.

detail to discuss how Venezuela got there and which years were vital years for them. “This

country has had a long history with oil; discovered in 1914 at the Mene Grande field, the natural

resource was first seen in production for export in 1917, with Royal Dutch Shell and Standard

Oil as the major players in its extraction and refinement. Oil’s share of exports rose dramatically

from 1.9% to 91.2% between 1920 and 1935 and by 1929 Venezuela was the world’s largest oil

exporter.9 In 1926, oil had surpassed the value of coffee and other agricultural commodities to

become the most important export to the Venezuelan economy.” (Timmerman, p5.2012)

Towards the end of the section on Venezuela the author discusses the effects that the resource

curse had on Venezuela. In which I believe he did a good job on explaining this especially to

someone who has no knowledge on this topic. He states that the way that Venezuela seemed to

be effected was that it was caused by “rent seeking behavior and poor government spending”. He

then goes on to say how although their government put a lot of money into public spending , a lot

of time it ends up being in effective and costing a lot of money. And that if Venezuela does not

get it together and find a cure to this resource curse, it will be the end for them.

The next country that the author discusses is Nigeria, many people would not assume that

this country was apart of the three largest oil exportations because it is known for its poverty.

The resource curse has a lot to do with the fact the world now sees Nigeria as being a country

that is filled with diseases, poverty and violence. The author support this statement by providing

us with evidence of this. Nigeria experienced their oil boom in the 1970’s as well as the 1980’s,

at this time they were improving their economy and pushing for a better democracy. “However,

symptoms of Dutch Disease were beginning to present themselves as agriculture’s share of GDP

dropped form 68% in 1965 to 35% in 1981 while the government invested heavily in services

and manufacturing.24 In addition, government investment in the manufacturing sector

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ineffective
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cite and provide the page number when you use a direct quote.
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Again, if a quote is longer than three sentences, you must make it a block quote. Nevertheless, in such a short essay like this one, you should not have this many long quotes. Instead of using the entire quote, paraphrase it and provide the citation and page number
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(Timmerman 2012, 5)
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Avoid starting a sentence with “And”
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remove space between the word and the comma
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supports
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Again, if a quote is longer than three sentences, you must make it a block quote. Nevertheless, in such a short essay like this one, you should not have this many long quotes.

demonstrated a waste of at least two-thirds of oil revenues, with only 35% of capacity utilization

in manufacturing investment in the mid-1980s.25” (Timmerman, p5.2012) It has been said that

Nigeria does have the potential to improve its economy as well as living situation, they would

just have to take advantage of their revenue from the exports of petroleum but instead of doing

so they have neglected majority of its people, and this is an exampled of resource curse.

Lastly the author discusses Kazakhstan, in which the author says has shown more care

and thought for its future, especially when it comes to the oil revenue. He backs this up by saying

that they have the second largest reserves and production capacity in all of the soviet republics,

ad that Kazakhstan does have potential to become one of the worlds top producers. “At the end

of 2010, Kazakhstan had proven reserves of 38.9 thousand million barrels at 2.9% of the world

total and 9th in ranking.35 The Tengiz, which lies along the northeast chores of the Caspian Sea,

was discovered in 1979 and is Kazakhstan’s largest producing field. It produced 492,000 bbl/d of

crude oil in 2009 and has been in development since 1993, when a forty-year joint venture

between Chevron and the state-owned KazMunayGas was created that later became known as

Tengizchevroil when it expanded into a four-company consortium in 1997.” (Timmerman,

p5.2012). It is said that out of all three of the countries Kazakhstan has suffered the least, and has

for the most part has had a positive growth. Not only that but the author also states that the

government has also been heavily invested in the welfare of its population, which is different

from Nigeria, and also Venezuela. Kazakhstan didn’t become an oil exporting country until 1991,

so they have had time to see other countries and where they went wrong. They were able to learn

from their mistake and look further.

Conclusion: I loved how the author concluded this reading and bought everything together, not

repeating exactly what was in the reading but touching on it briefly. The author state sthat for

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supports this by
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proofread
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example
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Paraphrase such a long quote.
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did not
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(Timmerman 2012, 5)

any of these countries to be able to meet their full potential they must learn how to over come the

resource curse. It will be easier for Kazakhstan, who had the ability to see Nigeria and Venezuela

conflicts. The countries must learn to take these downfalls and use it to the best of them.

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