Utilisation of derivatives to manage risks
We enter into derivative transactions in accordance with policies
approved by the Board to manage our exposure to market risks and
volatility of financial outcomes that arise as part of our normal
business operations. We do not speculatively trade in derivative
financial instruments.
Hedging refers to the way in which we use financial instruments,
primarily derivatives, to manage our exposure to financial risks. The
gain or loss on the underlying item (the ‘hedged item’) is expected to
move in the opposite direction to the gain or loss on the derivative
(the ‘hedging instrument’), therefore offsetting our risk position.
Hedge accounting allows the matching of the gains and losses on
hedged items and associated hedging instruments in the same
accounting period to minimise volatility in the income statement. In
order to qualify for hedge accounting, prospective hedge
effectiveness testing must meet all of the following criteria:
• an economic relationship exists between the hedged item and
hedging instrument
• the effect of credit risk does not dominate the value changes
resulting from the economic relationship
• the hedge ratio is the same as that resulting from actual amounts
of hedged items and hedging instruments for risk management.
Our major exposure to interest rate risk and foreign currency risk
arises from our long-term borrowings. We also have translation
foreign currency risk associated with investments in foreign
operations and transactional foreign currency exposures such as
purchases in foreign currencies. These risks are discussed further in
note 4.4.


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