Policy Outcomes (5.5 page paper) Construct constitutive and operational definitions for any three (3) of the following actions and outcome variables: Program expenditure Equality of educational opportunity Personnel turnover National….
Please read through the document that I’ve uploaded, it will guide you how to write better. Hi William, 1. please select one of the organisation that you feel more comfortable with, either Australia Post or Australian 7- eleven 2. Topic 1 to Topic 4 is really helpful with this assignment pls have a look with it 3. please select one of the model list below: Kotter’s integrative model of organizational dynamics McKinsey 7S model Weisbord’s six-box model Burke-Litwen causal model of organisational performance and change Bolman & Deal four frame diagnostic model after you chosen, pls inform me and i will upload a document that is relate with this model and be one of the reference 4. Sample A,B C and D is a helpful guide or assist tool to make you feel more easy to follow what should be done in parts 5.If you have any question, pls let me know as soon as possible
PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT: THE CURRENT SITUATION
A part-time worker is some who works less than 35 hours per week, inclusive of all jobs that the
person holds (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006).
Tang (2006) asserts that part time workers get paid less, have less job security and very little
chance for promotion. Tilly (cited in Tang 2006) also states that part-time employees do not enjoy
the same amount of fringe benefits as those who are employed on a full-time basis. This
inferiority of part-time employment is based upon the fact that such jobs generally do not require
any special skills, with employees having very little responsibility and often no promotion
opportunities due to the reduced number of hours they actually spend in their place of
employment. It is also said that part time workers are not as satisfied with their income, workrelated
benefits and their jobs in general when compared to full-time workers because of this.
A. The part-time workforce
Part-time employees come from many different backgrounds and life situations. The main
demographic groups which contribute to the part-time work force are students, mothers
returning to work and people approaching retirement.
The large number of students in the part-time workforce is evident in the large proportion of the
15 – 24 year old population who are employed on a part-time basis (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2006). It is obvious that full-time employment is generally not suitable for students due
to the time commitments required of them by their studies.
42 percent of the female workforce aged between 25 and 54 in 2006 was employed on a parttime
basis, which is more conducive to raising a family than full-time employment (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2006). Aside from the obvious benefit of being able to spend more time with
her children, despite earning less when working part-time, a woman may be financially better-off
than when working full-time as acquiring childcare for the standard 40 hour working week is
The Australia Bureau of Statistics states that there has generally been a higher proportion of
males and females in the age groups above 55 years of age working part-time in 2005 than in
1985, and asserts that this reflects the ‘increased use of part-time work to re-enter the labour
force after child caring responsibilities (for women) and in the transition from full-time work to
retirement (for both men and women) (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, p. 6).
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MMH356 Case Study Final Report
B. The move from full-time to part-time employment in Australia
The general movement away from full-time work between 1985 and 2005 reflects the shift
towards part-time employment (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006). During this time, the
proportion of both males and females who work full-time decreased by nine percent (down from
94 to 85 percent for males and from 63 to 54 percent for females.) The correlative increase in
part-time employment over the 1985 – 2005 period was from 6 to 15 percent for men and 37 to
46 percent for women, and is depicted in the chart below (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006).
Relative changes in full-time and part-time
Full-time Part-time Full-time Part-time
Proprotion of workforce
(% by gender)
Figure 1: Relative full-time and part-time employment, 1985 – 2005
C. Factors affecting job satisfaction
1. Income and work-life balance
Conflicting results have been reported regarding job satisfaction among part-time employees. A
person’s satisfaction with their job and lifestyle is contingent on many varying factors, the central
one being how important a person’s income is to their job satisfaction (Sivastava, Locke & Bartol
2001). Tang (2006) demonstrates that a person who is highly income-oriented will be dissatisfied
with part-time employment, and that such dissatisfaction will extend to their life in general, which
may result in ‘unethical’ or unproductive behaviour in the workplace.
Employees who value other aspects of their lives more highly than income, such as family,
recreation, travel and study time however, are better suited to part-time employment (Tang
2006). Such employees will perform favourably when working shorter hours despite the negative
aspects of part-time employment, however it is still important that part-time employees are not
neglected and are paid and treated fairly in their position.
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MMH356 Case Study Final Report
2. Age and hours currently held
It has also been demonstrated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that whether a person is
satisfied with the hours of their part-time employment varies greatly between the various age
groups (2006). In November 2003, 61 percent of all part-time employees in Australia were
satisfied with their working hours, 31 percent desired more hours, and 8 percent wanted to
worker less hours per week (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006).
82 percent of part-time employees aged over 65 were content with the number of hours they
worked each week, having no desire to change, thereby reflecting a satisfaction with working
reduced hours and having reduced income, but are glad to remain in the workforce for at least
some time prior to retirement.
48 percent of part-time employees aged between 15 and 24 desired an increase in the hours
worked per week.
The Survey of Working Arrangements conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2003
(cited in Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006) demonstrates that since the hours worked by a part
time employee can range from anywhere between 1 and 35 hours per week, the desire for more
or less hours also relies on the number of hours currently worked. For example, people who
worked 30 to 34 hours per week were more likely to wish for fewer hours (13 percent) than
people working 1 to 15 hours per week (3 percent).