According to Jarvis, MacDonald and Nouri’s findings (2014) disagreement over the concept of cyberterrorism is important for what reasons? (Note there is more than one correct answer)

Analyse the issue of hacking and hacktivism?
Analyse the threat that sub-state groups can pose to states and institutions?
Analyse how sub-state groups can use cyber-technologies to improve security and rights for marginalised groups?
What is hacktivism and does it pose a threat, or is it a means to security?
How does hacktivism challenge traditional IR understandings of threat and security?
Is hacktivism always a cybercrime?
Explain how states utilise technologies for surveillance in the name of security?
Evaluate and discuss the tensions between state security and individual security?
Describe the relationship between, and relate the issue of, surveillance and cybersecurity?
How does the issue of surveillance link with cybersecurity (and security more broadly)?
Should states be able to utilise technologies to conduct mass surveillanceand do these practices make us more secure or less secure?
Explain what is meant by cyberterrorism?
Identify the debates that exist on the meaning of cyberterrorism?
Relate cyberterrorism to other cybersecurity issues, such as hacking and cyberattacks?
Is cyberterrorism qualitatively different to other forms of terrorism or violent extremism?
What are the potential means and targets of cyberterrorism?
Explain the extent to which you see cyberterrorism as a threat to individual, national and/or international security?
Evaluate the argument regarding cyberterrorism being a ‘constructed’ threat
Explain the link between cyberterrorism as a ‘constructed’ threat and international relations theory
Outline the potential risks of overstating cyberterrorism as a threat to international/national security.
Does cyberterrorism represent a threat or is it overstated?
What challenges do you envisage in the national and international response to cyber terrorism and What policy options would you suggest?
THE short answers have been provided for these questions howvere I need to explian them more
1-According to Kenny (2015), cyberterrorism refers to the convergence of terrorism and cyberspace and
-Computer technology being the weapon and target.

2-According to Jarvis, MacDonald and Nouri’s survey (2014) what were the three most important elements of cyberterrorism?
-motive; digital means or target; and fear as an outcome.

03-According to Jarvis, MacDonald and Nouri’s findings (2014) disagreement over the concept of cyberterrorism is important for what reasons? (Note there is more than one correct answer)
-It encourages scholars to reconsider, perhaps even change, their understandings of terrorism itself.

04-What does the ‘harm principle’ insist on?
-Conduct may only justifiably be criminalised if it wrongfully causes harm to others.

05-According to Carlile QC and Macdonald (2014), discretionary decision making is…
-inevitable in any legal system.

06- According to Jarvis et al (2015), danger is..
-a product of framing and interpretation.

7-According to Jarvis et al’s (2015) research, the geographical focus of media coverage was largely centred on which country?
– USA

8-Conway (2014) states that no act of cyberterrorism has yet occurred because conventional attacks using methods such as Vehicle Based Improvised Explosive Devices (VBIED) are…
-cheaper, simpler, more readily destructive and possess greater symbolic power.

9-According to Hardy (2015), who were the cyberattacks on the secure networks of Australia’s Bureau of Meteorology and the Reserve Bank of Australia attributed to?
-China and Indonesia

10-According to Carlile QC and Macdonald (2014), discretionary decision making is..
– inevitable in any legal system.

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