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public safety

public safety

Question Description

I’m working on a Psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

Since pre-Roman times, work has been done during the night as well as during daylight hours. While workers have always complained about being tired when working at night, it has not been until relatively recently that the degree of impairment has been researched and documented. Diminished performance is only one of the problems caused by being out of phase with one’s environment. Worker and public safety also can be compromised. Although other factors may have been involved, fatigue should not be ruled out as a contributor to the following much publicized disasters:

Chernobyl 1:23 A.M.
Bhopal 12:40 A.M.
Three-Mile Island 4:00 A.M.

Fatigue may also be involved in other types of accidents. The National Transportation and Safety Board carefully studies accident reports and statistics and attempts to determine common factors in accidents. This information is then used to inform the enactment of new laws and to educate the public on risks associated with transportation.
For example, here is a summary of a report:
Title: Evaluation of U.S. Department of Transportation Efforts in the 1990s to Address Operator Fatigue NTSB Report Number: SR-99-01, adopted on 5/11/1999: You can access the full article by placing “Evaluation of U.S. Department of Transportation Efforts in the 1990s to Address Operator Fatigue” in the search bar of your favorite browser. Select the PDF file that comes up matching the name of your search.

Synopsis: During the 1980s, the National Transportation Safety Board investigated several aviation, highway, and marine accidents that involved operator fatigue. Following completion of these accident investigations, the Safety Board in 1989 issued three recommendations to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) addressing needed research, education, and revisions to hours-of-service regulations.

Ten years have passed since these safety recommendations were issued. In the interim, the Safety Board has issued more than 70 additional recommendations to the DOT, states, industry, and industry associations to reduce the incidence of fatigue-related accidents. In response to the three 1989 recommendations, the DOT and the modal administrations have, in general, acted and responded positively to the recommendations addressing research and education; little action, however, has occurred with respect to revising the hours-of-service regulations. Nevertheless, the Safety Board believes that support has grown in recent years to make substantive changes to these regulations.

This report provides an update on the activities and efforts by the DOT and the modal administrations to address operator fatigue and, consequently, the progress that has been made in the past 10 years to implement the actions called for in the three intermodal recommendations and other fatigue-related recommendations. The report also provides some background information on current hours-of-service regulations, fatigue, and the effects of fatigue on transportation safety.

As a result of this safety report, the National Transportation Safety Board issued new safety recommendations to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the Research and Special Programs Administration, and the United States Coast Guard. The Safety Board also reiterated two recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration.

Transportation Accidents
1982 and 1992 Avg. # of Passenger Deaths/Year Average Rate/Year
(Deaths per 100 Million Passenger Miles)
Airplanes 119.1 .033
Trains 6.5 .055
Buses 36.3 .030
Cars 23,585 1.040

Researchers have found that “the neural processes controlling alertness and sleep produce an increased sleep tendency and diminished capacity to function during certain early morning hours (circa 2–7 A.M.) and, to a lesser degree, during a period in the mid-afternoon (circa 2–5 P.M.), whether or not we have slept. Several studies of single-vehicle car accidents that have been judged to be fatigue-related have shown two peak times for accidents—a major one between midnight and 7 A.M., and a secondary peak between 1 and 4 P.M.”

For this activity address the question below:
What kinds of changes could be made to improve worker performance and/or prevent accidents due to circadian limitations?

Please include 2 articles in response. APA format.

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